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What Is ESI Contribution to Salary? (How to Calculate ESI on Salary)

ESI Contribution

ESI contribution is a social security and health insurance scheme in India. It is governed by the Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948, and provides medical and cash benefits to employees and their dependents. Understanding the ESI contribution is crucial for both employers and employees to ensure compliance and take advantage of the benefits it offers.

What Is ESI?

ESI, or Employee State Insurance, is a comprehensive social security and health insurance scheme implemented by the Government of India. It is designed to provide protection to employees against unforeseen events such as illness, maternity, disability, or death. The ESI scheme is managed by the Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC), which is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Labour and Employment.

Importance of ESI Contribution

ESI contribution plays a vital role in providing financial assistance and medical benefits to employees and their dependents during times of need. It offers protection against various contingencies and ensures that employees have access to quality healthcare services. ESI also helps in reducing the financial burden on employees and their families during medical emergencies.

ESI Contribution Rate

The ESI contribution rate is a percentage of the employee’s wages, which includes basic pay, dearness allowance, retaining allowance, and other cash benefits. As of [current year], the ESI contribution rate is [percentage], which is divided between the employer and the employee. The employer contributes [percentage] of the wages, while the employee contributes [percentage] of the wages.

Components of ESI Contribution

The ESI contribution is comprised of two parts: the employee’s contribution and the employer’s contribution. The employee’s contribution is deducted from their salary and remitted to the ESI fund, while the employer’s contribution is an additional expense incurred by the employer. Both contributions together form the total ESI contribution.

Calculating ESI on Salary

Calculating ESI on salary involves determining the wages on which the ESI contribution will be calculated. The wages include basic pay, dearness allowance, retaining allowance, and any other cash benefits specified by the ESI Act. The ESI contribution is calculated as a percentage of these wages, subject to certain limitations and exemptions.

To calculate ESI on salary, follow these steps:

  1. Identify the wages components that are considered for ESI calculation.
  2. Add up all the applicable components to determine the gross wages.
  3. Multiply the gross wages by the ESI contribution rate to obtain the total ESI contribution.
  4. Divide the total contribution into the employer’s and employee’s share based on the respective percentages.

Exemptions and Limitations

While calculating ESI on salary, certain exemptions and limitations need to be considered. For example, employees with a daily average wage exceeding a specified limit are exempted from ESI contribution. Additionally, employees who are already covered under other health insurance schemes may also be exempted. It’s important to be aware of these exemptions and limitations to ensure accurate ESI calculation.

ESI Benefits and Coverage

ESI provides a range of benefits to employees and their dependents. It covers medical benefits, including outpatient and inpatient treatment, maternity benefits, disablement benefits, and dependent benefits. The coverage extends to employees earning below a certain wage threshold and working in specified factories or establishments. The exact benefits and coverage may vary based on the ESI rules and regulations.

Process of ESI Contribution of Employee and Employer

The ESI contribution process involves a series of steps that both employers and employees need to follow to ensure accurate and timely contributions to the ESI fund. It’s important to understand this process to ensure compliance with the ESI Act and to take advantage of the benefits offered by the scheme.

1) Employer ESI Contribution

As an employer, your responsibility starts with registering your establishment under the ESI Act. This involves providing the necessary details about your business and employees to the concerned authorities. Once registered, you will receive a unique identification number, often referred to as the ESI code, which will be used for all ESI-related transactions.

When it comes to the actual contribution, as an employer, you are responsible for deducting the employee’s share of the ESI contribution from their salary. This deduction is based on the applicable ESI contribution rate and is calculated as a percentage of the employee’s wages, which includes components like basic pay, dearness allowance, and retaining allowance.

It’s important to accurately calculate this deduction to ensure the right amount is deducted from the employee’s salary. Once the deduction is made, you are required to remit the employee’s contribution, along with your own contribution, to the ESI fund.

This remittance needs to be done within a specified timeframe, typically by the 15th of the following month. You can make the payment through various modes, such as online transfer or through authorized banks. Remember to keep a record of the contributions made and maintain necessary documents for future reference.

2) Employees ESI Contribution

On the employee’s side, it’s essential to ensure that the deducted amount is reflected accurately in their salary slip. Employees should verify the deducted amount and check if it aligns with the applicable ESI contribution rate and their wages. If any discrepancies are found, it’s important to bring it to the attention of the employer or the concerned authorities promptly.

It’s worth mentioning that the ESI contribution process is an ongoing responsibility. Employers need to consistently deduct and remit the contributions for each pay cycle, ensuring compliance with the ESI Act. Employees should also stay informed about their rights and benefits under the ESI scheme, including the medical services and cash benefits they are entitled to.

By following the ESI contribution process diligently, both employers and employees contribute to the welfare and well-being of the workforce. The ESI scheme provides financial assistance and healthcare benefits during challenging times, and accurate contributions ensure the availability of these benefits when needed the most.

Remember, compliance with the ESI contribution process not only helps in fulfilling legal obligations but also safeguards the interests of both employers and employees. It’s important to understand and adhere to the ESI rules and regulations to ensure a smooth and effective contribution process.

If you have any specific questions or concerns about the ESI contribution process, feel free to ask.

Employer’s Responsibility

Employers have certain responsibilities regarding ESI contribution. They must register their establishment under the ESI Act, maintain necessary records and registers, and submit the required forms and returns within the prescribed timelines. Employers also need to provide employees with an ESI card, which serves as proof of their entitlement to ESI benefits.

Employee’s Responsibility

Employees have a crucial role in ensuring accurate ESI contribution. They need to provide accurate information to their employer, such as their ESI number and other necessary details. Employees should also keep track of their salary slips, verify the deducted amount, and report any discrepancies to their employer or the concerned authorities.

ESI Calculation Examples

To understand the ESI calculation process better, let’s consider a few examples:

  • Example 1:

[Provide an example illustrating the ESI calculation for a specific scenario.]

  • Example 2:

[Provide another example illustrating the ESI calculation for a different scenario.]

By analyzing these examples, employees can gain a better understanding of how ESI contributions are calculated in various situations.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

When dealing with ESI contributions, it’s important to be aware of common mistakes that can occur. Some of these mistakes include:

  1. Incorrect calculation of the contribution amount.
  2. Failure to include all the eligible wages components.
  3. Delayed remittance of the contribution to the ESI fund.
  4. Non-compliance with ESI registration and record-keeping requirements.

By avoiding these mistakes, employers and employees can ensure accurate ESI contributions and prevent any penalties or legal complications.

ESI Contribution Compliance

Compliance with ESI contribution regulations is essential for both employers and employees. It involves adhering to the provisions of the ESI Act, maintaining accurate records, and submitting the necessary forms and returns within the specified timeframes. Employers must also ensure timely payment of the contribution and keep employees informed about their rights and benefits under the ESI scheme.


ESI contribution to salary is a crucial aspect of the social security and health insurance scheme in India. It provides employees with financial assistance and medical benefits during times of need. By understanding the ESI contribution rate, calculation process, exemptions, and limitations, both employers and employees can ensure compliance and take advantage of the benefits offered by the ESI scheme.


  • Can an employee opt out of ESI contribution?

No, employees who are eligible for ESI coverage cannot opt out of the contribution. It is mandatory for both employers and employees to contribute to the ESI fund.

  • What happens if an employer fails to make ESI contributions?

If an employer fails to make ESI contributions within the specified timeframe, they may be liable for penalties and legal consequences. It’s important for employers to fulfill their responsibilities to avoid such issues.

  • Can an employee claim ESI benefits if they are not contributing?

No, employees who are not contributing to the ESI fund are not eligible for ESI benefits. Contribution is a prerequisite for availing the benefits provided by the ESI scheme.

  • Are there any tax benefits associated with ESI contributions?

ESI contributions are not eligible for tax benefits under the Income Tax Act. However, the benefits received under the ESI scheme are tax-free.

  • Can an employer recover the employee’s share of ESI contribution from their wages?

No, as per the ESI Act, it is prohibited for employers to recover the employee’s share of the contribution from their wages. The employer is responsible for remitting the employee’s contribution to the ESI fund.